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By David Grummitt

The Wars of the Roses (c. 1450-85) are well known as an infamously savage and tangled slice of English heritage. A bloody thirty-year fight among the dynastic homes of Lancaster and York, they embraced localized vendetta (such because the sour northern feud among the Percies and Nevilles) in addition to the formal conflict of royalist and insurgent armies at St Albans, Ludford Bridge, Mortimer's go, Towton, Tewkesbury and eventually Bosworth, while the usurping Yorkist king Richard was once overwhelmed via Henry Tudor. robust personalities dominate the interval: the charismatic and enigmatic Richard III, immortalized by way of Shakespeare; the slippery Warwick, "the kingmaker," who eventually over-reached ambition to be lower on the conflict of Barnet; and guileful ladies like Elizabeth Woodville and Margaret of Anjou, who for a time governed the dominion in her husband's stead. David Grummitt locations the violent occasions of this advanced time within the wider context of fifteenth-century kingship and the advance of English political tradition. by no means wasting sight of the worrying influence of struggle at the lives of these who both fought in or have been touched by means of conflict, this desirable new background will make compelling examining for college students of the past due medieval interval and Tudor England, in addition to for common readers.

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Henry was recognised as heir to the French king, Charles VI, his status confirmed by his marriage to Charles’s daughter, Catherine of Valois. Victorious in war, celebrated and loved by his subjects at home, Henry was the exemplar of medieval kingship. Or so it seems. Henry V’s kingship was, however, more ambiguous than many contemporaries or subsequent historians have allowed. In 1413 expectations for the renewal of the English polity were first and foremost expectations of the character and virtue of the new king.

She was released from Yorkist captivity in 1475 and returned to France, where she died seven years later. Her son was killed after the Battle of Tewkesbury. Mowbray, John (d. 1461), 3rd Duke of Norfolk. One of the leading magnates in England and in the early 1450s an implacable enemy of Edmund, Duke of Somerset, Mowbray kept a low profile in the second half of the decade, but was among those lords who acclaimed Edward IV as king in 1461 and he fought at Towton. He died peacefully in November that year.

He was despised by the Earl of Warwick and captured and executed in 1469. His son, Anthony (d. 1483), Lord Scales and 2nd Earl Rivers, succeeded his father but was captured by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, prior to his usurpation in 1483 and subsequently executed. xxxv IBT049˚— Wars of the Roses:Layout 1 14/9/12 16:20 Page xxxvi Timeline 1399 1415 1420 1422 1449 1450 1455 1458 Usurpation of Henry Bolingbroke and deposition of Richard II. Renewal of the Hundred Years War and Henry V’s victory at the Battle of Agincourt.

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