By James C. Lin
The goal of this fourth quantity within the sequence Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in dwelling structures remains kind of like past volumes: so as to add a few major advances during this zone of analysis to clinical literature.
In common, the interplay of electromagnetic fields and waves with organic platforms is frequency-dependent. additionally, the mechanisms of interplay for fields at low frequencies are very diversified from these at excessive frequencies. whereas major advances are being made on many fronts, a distinct emphasis of this quantity is on present and destiny biomedical functions of electromagnetic fields, ranging in frequency from quasi-static to the optical area. every one bankruptcy involves a finished presentation of an issue of present curiosity and starting to be value.
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Extra resources for Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems
Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 293–302. , Oren R. , 1998, Evidence for a central origin of the low frequency oscillation in R-R-interval variability, Circulation, 98(6):556–561. P. , 1995, Successful in utero therapy of fetal heart block, Am. J. Obstet. , 173(5):1384–1390. , Hall Barbosa C. , 2001, Fetal cardiac activity analysis during twin pregnancy using a multi-channel SQUID system, Physica C, 354:87–90. T. A. W. , pp. 1713–1721. , Moulden M. , 1990, Limitations of antenatal foetal heart rate monitors, Am.
To study the volume conduction in a realistically shaped model three MR-images were obtained from pregnant women in the period ranging between 21 to 30 weeks of gestation. Using these images, models were created that consisted of three compartments, representing the fetus, the amniotic ﬂuid and the remainder of the abdominal volume (see Fig. 17). The amniotic ﬂuid and the structures within the fetus could be reasonably well distinguished in the MR-images. Details in the maternal abdomen like a layer of fat or skin could not be distinguished.
Fetal Magnetocardiography 31 After birth, the T-wave shows the largest variety in duration and amplitude in the PQRST complex. Several hours after birth it may point in any direction, but after 30 hours it settles down in a direction towards the left-inferior quadrant either pointing anteriorly or posteriorly. After one month the range in which the T-wave is pointing varies from 20 degrees anteriorly or 60 degrees posteriorly in the horizontal plane [Namin and Miller, 1966]. The data show that it is likely that both P and T-wave point in more or less the same direction and that the R-peak is more or less under an angle of 90 degrees with these other two.