By Elisabetta de Lutio di Castelguidone, Antonella Messina
This booklet goals to supply a whole evaluation of the analysis and remedy of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). it's been conceived to be either an in depth consultant for scientific perform and an up to date reference for all these inquisitive about the assessment of GISTs imaging. The ebook offers entire descriptions of the entire variety of universal imaging and nonimaging suggestions utilized in the prognosis and followup of GISTs. options reviewed contain: traditional radiography· Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound· traditional, color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasound· Computed tomography· Magnetic resonance imaging, and· Contrast-enhanced PET/CT imaging. either scientific and surgical procedure recommendations also are totally reviewed. ultimately, the e-book concludes with a bankruptcy that goals to stimulate common curiosity within the formation of latest GISTs devices. Written by means of specialists within the box, the ebook is enriched all through by way of a variety of black-and-white and colour photographs, making it a useful resource of knowledge in addition to an necessary consultant to examining pictures for radiologists, gastroenterologists, pathologists, oncologists and surgeons.
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Additional info for GISTs - Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:177–179 37 7. Toshio K, Yoshiyuki I, Tomomi M et al (2008) Endoscopic enucleation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach: report of five cases World J Gastr 28:2609–2611 8. Waterman AL, Grobmyer SR, Cance WG et al (2008) Is endoscopic resection of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors safe? Am Surg 74:1186–1189 9. Van Dam J, Sivak M (1999) Gastrointestinal endosonography. Saunders Company, Philadelphia 10. Classen M, Tytgat NJ, Lightdale CJ (2004) Gastroenterological endoscopy, 2nd edn.
Other features that suggest malignancy include inhomogeneity, central liqueﬁed necrosis, intralesional cystic spaces, irregular margins, prevalently exophytic growth pattern, inﬁltration of the adjacent structures, peritoneal spread and distant metastasis. The heterogeneity and degree of enhancement (at CEUS), while being predictive elements of high-grade malignancy are not speciﬁc parameters in this sense. Several studies  have demonstrated a signiﬁcant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement at CEUS and the level of aggressiveness of GISTs, with the demonstration of a "richer" vascularity (greater enhancement including central enhancement) in malignant forms.
B, c, d EUS shows the origin of the submucosal mass arising from the hypoechoic layer of the muscularis propria. e, f Surgical specimen of malignant gastric GIST with internal metastasis from breast carcinoma a b c Fig. 4 a Submucosal mass with overlying normal mucosa, >1 cm in diameter. Incidental finding during screening. b, c EUS with 12 MHz miniature transducer and balloon-based technique shows a submucosal mass arising from the 2nd echogenic layer of the wall (hypoechoic) corresponding to the muscularis mucosa, with regular shape and margins and homogeneous hypoechoic echogenicity with some hyperechoic areas due to calcifications.