Read e-book online Handbook of energy audits PDF

By Younger, William J.; Niehus, Terry; Thumann, Albert

Now in its 5th version, this instruction manual is the main entire and useful reference to be had on strength auditing in structures and undefined. thoroughly up-to-date, the e-book gives you the entire details you must determine an power audit application in your facility. Accounting tactics, electric, mechanical, construction and method platforms research, lifestyles cycle costing, and upkeep administration are all lined intimately

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ELECTRIC CHARGES Service Charge This monthly charge, sometimes called the basic or customer charge, pays for fixed utility costs and are included with every billing. These fixed costs are independent of energy consumption and help 39 40 Handbook of Energy Audits cover a portion of the ongoing costs of service, such as operation and maintenance of the distribution systems, and administrative costs for metering, billing and collections. Energy Charge The standard billing unit for electricity is the kilowatt hour or kWh.

The top portion of Figure 2-6 illustrates how much energy is used by fuel type and its relative percentage. The pie chart below the energy use profile shows how much is spent for each fuel type. Using a pie chart representation can be very helpful in visualizing how energy is being used and how costs are distributed for those fuels. Figure 2-7 on the other hand shows how much of the energy is used for each function such as lighting, process, building and plant heating, and process ventilation. Pie charts similar to Figure 2-8 should be made for each category such as compressed air, steam, electricity, water, and natural gas.

Annuity (A or R)—a series of equal payments made over the term of an investment. , one that rises at a uniform rate throughout the term of the investment). Cash Flow Diagrams Cash flow diagrams are often used to help visualize the flow of capital throughout the term of an investment or life of an investment in energy efficiency improvements. When drawing a cash flow diagram, the following rules are applied: Energy Economic Decision Making • • • • 51 Arrows Always Point Away from the Time Axis Arrows Pointing Up Are Income Arrows Pointing Down Are Expenses Arrows Can Be Summed in the Same Year.

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