By G. Schneider, M.R. Prince, J.F.M. Meaney, V.B. Ho, E.J. Potchen
The creation of contrast-enhanced MRA within the early to mid Nineteen Nineties revolutionized the scientific method of vascular imaging: a correct non-invasive imaging modality, no longer requiring ionizing radiation or in all likelihood nephrotoxic iodinated distinction media, used to be in a position to compete with the extra damaging and invasive catheter angiography.
at the present time, MRA is a secure, easy-to-perform process normally utilized in such a lot imaging facilities and the ongoing improvement of quicker, extra strong magnets and better distinction brokers is more and more aiding to beat a number of the early boundaries of the technique.
Subdivided into 3 sections (technique, symptoms and sensible purposes) and written via across the world popular specialists within the box, this quantity sticks out within the present literature on MRA by way of providing:
· distinct details on series parameters for various magnets and vascular territories for the optimization of the MRA technique;
· a huge review of the crucial symptoms for which contrast-enhanced MR angiography is preferably suited;
· the common MR imaging findings linked to a variety of pathologies;
· the appropriateness of contrast-enhanced MRA in comparison with different modalities, equivalent to CTA and CEUS;
· the capability pitfalls and boundaries of the strategy in medical routine.
The quantity will turn out beneficial to radiologists and clinicians wishing to extend, enhance or consolidate their regimen method of vascular MR imaging.
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Additional info for Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Techniques, Indications and Practical Applications
In general the actual method used varies from site to site, and typically depends on individual operator preference and equipment type. In all cases, however, it is important to ensure technical proficiency with the chosen method. g. e. e. vascular SNR and CNR) and spatial resolution. Typical parameters for the various operator selection choices for three common MR scanners are listed in Table 1. g. spoiled gradient echo (SPGR), General Electric Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI, USA; fast low angle shot (FLASH), Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany; T1-fast field echo (T1-FFE), Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands).
Oblique sagittal MPR images (g, arterial phase; h, delayed phase) show the neck of the smaller saccular aneurysm (*) and aberrant origin of the left vertebral artery (arrow) from the aortic arch. The left vertebral artery is better visualized on the delayed phase image (h) because of its small size and relatively slower flow that hampered adequate Gd concentration during the arterial phase. This highlights the benefit of dual phase imaging when performing CE MRA (especially when using ultra fast 3D MRA acquisitions) as slow filling structures may not be seen as they have yet to accumulate sufficient Gd concentration.
Although this approach reduces imaging time at the expense of SNR, it has the benefit of preserving spatial resolution. On the other hand, the homodyne reconstruction algorithm used for such acquisitions assumes a constant phase across the image volume, which may not be true in the presence of flow, and may lead to artifacts. e. number of phase encoding steps). This reduction, also known as symmetric reduction or scan %, results in lower spatial resolution in the phase encoding direction, but has the benefit of increasing the SNR.