By S. Saini, G.D. Rubin, M.K. Kalra
Computed tomography (CT) is the main quickly evolving clinical imaging know-how. This booklet describes present exam options and complex medical functions of cutting-edge multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners in chapters contributed via numerous distinct radiologists and clinicians. every one bankruptcy is written from a realistic standpoint, in order that radiologists, citizens, scientific physicists, and radiology technologists can receive proper information regarding MDCT purposes in neuroradiology, cardiac imaging, chest, belly, and musculoskeletal radiology subspecialties. each one co-author offers pertinent illustrations and tables for larger figuring out of present and complex purposes of MDCT scanners. Readers will enjoy the event those authors describe in chapters on MDCT expertise, distinction management suggestions, distinction antagonistic results and their administration, and complex functions of MDCT.
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N Engl J Med 343:180–184 12. 3 • Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: Managing At-Risk Patients trolled trials. J Am Soc Nephrol 15:761–769 13. Baker C, Wragg A, Kumar S et al (2003) A rapid protocol for the prevention of contrast-induced renal dysfunction: the RAPPID study. J Am Coll Cardiol 41:2114–2118 29 14. Briguori C, Columbo A, Violante A et al (2004) Standard vs double dose of N-acetylcysteine to prevent contrast agent associated nephrotoxicity. 4 MDCT Radiation Dose Mannudeep K. Kalra Introduction Emergence of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners in radiology practice has increased the number of CT studies being performed for different clinical applications.
001 35 35 Incidence of CIN (%) 27 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 55 48 64 54 39 106 Iodixanol 290 mOsm/Kg 155 98 61 47 Iopamidol 796 mOsm/Kg 39 29 45 91 Iopromide Iohexol 844 mOsm/kg 65 50 56 Iopentol 79 Iomeprol 250 27 Ioxilan 00 NS Fig. 3. Review of 17 prospective randomized trials of a single contrast agent in high-risk patients undergoing angiographic studies or interventions . The studies included head-to-head comparisons and placebo arms of trials investigating prophylactic therapies such as theophylline, fenoldopam, and N-acetylcysteine.
This has raised concerns about risk of radiation-induced cancer with low-dose exposure associated with CT scanning. This chapter describes radiation dose quantities, scanning parameters that can be adjusted to optimize CT dose, and strategies for CT dose reduction. Radiation Dose Quantities Absorbed dose is the energy deposited in tissue/organs per unit mass measured in Gray (Gy). It is the basic quantity used for assessing the relative radiation risk to the tissue or organ. Effective dose represents a calculated quantity that accounts for the difference in radiosensitivity of different tissues.