Download e-book for kindle: MR Imaging and Spectroscopy of Central Nervous System by Rakesh K. Gupta, Robert B. Lufkin

By Rakesh K. Gupta, Robert B. Lufkin

This ebook covers matters on the topic of imaging gains of varied CNS infections and defines using more recent options akin to magnetization move imaging, spectroscopy, and diffusion-weighted imaging in a number of infections.

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Courtesy Drs. ) column shows the images of the two slices acquired at b = 1000 s/mm2. Several points are to be noted. One can immediately observe the bright zone compromised by a cerebral stroke in the left image. A hyperintense zone indicates a region where the protons are diffusing less than in the zones with lower intensity. A smaller value of diffusion coefficient (as in the stroke region) causes lesser dephasing of the spins and consequently more MR signal than that arising from normal tissue zones where the protons are able to diffuse to a greater extent.

However, to affect such a torque in the magnetization, M, and, hence, resonance, the alternating RF magnetic field must have the same Larmor frequency and must be perpendicular to the main static field. Let us see why this is so. When an alternating RF magnetic field, B 1, is applied perpendicular to B 0, the magnetization M will at a particular point in its precessional path around the Z-axis experience a torque which would make it precess around B 1 and thus change the angle by an amount d2. Half a revolution further, the change would be -d2, so that the overall change is zero.

When the frequency of B 1 is increased to compare with the Larmor frequency, T 0, each nucleus in the lower energy state will stay for some time under the influence of B 1 performing a precessional motion. When T = T0 , the angle 2 will be changed and the nucleus will absorb the energy due to resonance. The loss of energy from B 1 can be measured (20). The nuclear spins will also be in phase coherence. The angle 2 is called the flip angle and describes the macroscopic net effect on the spins. The quantum spins can exist only at certain energy levels; therefore, there are no flip angles for individual spins.

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