By Michael E. Phelps
This e-book is designed to provide the reader a pretty good figuring out of the physics and instrumentation elements of puppy, together with how puppy info are gathered and shaped into a picture. themes comprise uncomplicated physics, detector know-how utilized in sleek puppy scanners, info acquisition, and 3D reconstruction. a number of smooth puppy imaging platforms also are mentioned, together with these designed for medical providers and examine, in addition to small-animal imaging. equipment for comparing the functionality of those platforms also are defined. The booklet will curiosity nuclear medication scholars, nuclear drugs physicians, and technologists.
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Extra info for PET: Physics, Instrumentation, and Scanners
511 keV Photon Detectors FIGURE 14. Concept of quadrant sharing that enables detector elements to be decoded using a smaller number of larger diameter PM tubes. For a given detector element size, this approach can reduce the number of PM tubes by almost a factor of four if large panels are constructed. (Adapted with permission from Cherry SR, Sorenson JA, Phelps ME. B. ) Continuous gamma camera detector The other major approach to constructing a PET detector is based on a largearea, continuous plate of NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a matrix of PMTs as shown in Figure 15.
A large number of detector elements implies good solid angle coverage (improving the chances of detecting annihilation photon pairs that are being emitted in all directions). The block design also leads to detector elements that are smaller than the PMTs themselves. Smaller detector elements allow gamma-ray interactions to be better localized leading to improved spatial resolution as well. The spatial resolution of the block detector is primarily determined by the width of the detector elements (assuming scintillation light is sufficient to resolve each of the elements).
Due to the ambiguity of where to position the events, these normally are discarded. B. ) Accidental coincidences When positron annihilation occurs, the two 511-keV photons are emitted simultaneously. Therefore, the detectors should ideally respond simultaneously. Because of the finite time resolution of the detectors, as discussed earlier, signals must be accepted if they occur within a certain finite time interval or timing window. Because of the finite width of the timing window, it is possibile that two unrelated single annihilation photons can be detected and registered as a valid coincidence.