By D. R. Hill (eds.)
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Additional resources for Principles of Diagnostic X-Ray Apparatus
Unfortunately an increase in tube current produces a heating problem in the anode. The area on the anode which the electrons strike will become very hot so there is a limit which must be imposed. g. in fluoroscopy. For radiographs to be taken in a fraction of a second,a high intensity produced by tube currents of around 1, 000 milliamperes is required. The effect of a variation in the potential difference applied to the X-ray tube can also be seen in 4 Fig. 3. Below 7, 000 volts (7kV) no characteristic radiation is produced with a copper anode.
E. Rolid, liquid or gas) is not important in this connection, subject to the densities being the same. Even the chemical state is unimportant. Unlike light, which is readily absorbed by sulphur and carbon but not by the carbon disulphide (compound of sulphur and carbon), X-rays are as readily absorbed by the compound as they are by the elements. Thus bone (calcium-atomic number 20) is a more efficient absorber than soft tissue (atomic number 7). 1 0 Absorption Dependence on Hardness of Rays The softer the rays.
Congenital malformatiot1). Experiments cannot be conducted on man but those carried out on animals seem to indicate that there is no threshold beyond which biological effects take place. 1l Commissiot1 on Radiological Protection in 1923. 1. 0 rad per week The ''tolerable dose" in 1934 was 0. 1 rad per week Do not worry for the moment about the mysterious unit called the rad. 49 It is only necessary to note that it is now important to ~e able to measure radiation and that the amount permitted has steadily decreased.