By Ervin B. Podgorsak
This textbook summarizes the fundamental wisdom of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that pros operating in clinical physics and biomedical engineering want for effective and secure use of ionizing radiation in medication. focusing on the underlying ideas of radiation physics, the textbook covers the prerequisite wisdom for clinical physics classes at the graduate and post-graduate degrees in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and overall healthiness physics, therefore supplying the hyperlink among easy undergraduate physics and the intricacies of 4 scientific physics specialties: diagnostic radiology physics, nuclear drugs physics, radiation oncology physics, and health and wellbeing physics. to acknowledge the significance of radiation dosimetry to clinical physics 3 new chapters were extra to the 14 chapters of the former version. bankruptcy 15 presents a normal creation to radiation dosimetry. bankruptcy sixteen offers with absolute radiation dosimetry structures that determine absorbed dose or another dose similar volume at once from the sign measured via the dosimeter. 3 absolute dosimetry strategies are recognized and defined intimately: (i) calorimetric; (ii) chemical (Fricke), and (iii) ionometric. bankruptcy 17 bargains with relative radiation dosimetry platforms that depend on a prior dosimeter calibration in a identified radiation box. Many relative radiation dosimetry structures were built so far and 4 most crucial different types used generally in drugs and radiation defense are defined during this bankruptcy: (i) Ionometric dosimetry; (ii) Luminescence dosimetry; (iii) Semiconductor dosimetry; and (iv) movie dosimetry.
The ebook is meant as a textbook for a radiation physics path in educational scientific physics graduate courses in addition to a reference ebook for applicants getting ready for certification examinations in scientific physics sub-specialties. it might probably even be of curiosity to many pros, not just physicists, who of their day-by-day occupations care for numerous points of scientific physics or radiation physics and feature a necessity or wish to enhance their realizing of radiation physics.
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Additional info for Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists
It is characterized by its numerical value (magnitude) and associated unit. The following rules apply in general: • Symbols for physical quantities are set in italic (sloping) type, while symbols for units are set in roman (upright) type. For example: m = 21 kg; E = 15 MeV; K = 180 cGy. • The numerical value and the unit of a physical quantity must be separated by space. For example: 21 kg, not 21kg; 15 MeV, not 15MeV. • Superscripts and subscripts used with physical quantities are in italic type if they represent variables, quantities, or running numbers; they are in roman type if they are descriptive.
1 Introduction to Semiconductor Physics. . . . 2 Semiconductor p-n Junction . . . . . . . . 3 Diode Radiation Dosimeter . . . . . . . . 4 Silicon Diode Dosimeter: Practical Issues. . . 5 Diamond Radiation Dosimeter . . . . . . . 6 Semiconductor Dosimetry: Summary . . . . . . 740 . 745 . 748 . 752 . 752 . 753 . 754 . 755 . . . . 759 761 762 763 . . . . . . . . . 765 767 768 768 769 772 775 783 785 . 787 . 788 . 789 . . . .
818 fm) Radius of the nth allowed Bohr orbit Average electron radius Roentgen (unit of exposure: 2:58Â10À4 C/kgair ) Relative biological effectiveness Radial wave function; radius (of nucleus); reaction rate; distance of closest approach Mean range Continuous slowing down approximation range Rydberg constant for hydrogen (109678 cm–1) Maximum penetration depth Nuclear radius constant Distance of closest approach between the α-particle and nucleus in a non-direct hit collision Rydberg constant assuming an inﬁnite nuclear mass (109737 cm–1) Depth of the 50% depth dose in water for electron beam Second (unit of time) Spin quantum number Mass stopping power Poynting vector Mean total mass stopping power Mass collision stopping power Roman Letter Symbols Scol Sin Sin Sout Sout Srad Stot Sv S(x, Z) t t tmax t1=2 T T=‰ TE TM torr u u U U À Àel Àthr Àen Àgr Àn Àph Àﬁ V V VN VTF ðr Þ VFNS VYuk V ” wR wC wPE wPP W xlix Mean collision stopping power Poynting vector of incident radiation Mean Poynting vector of incident radiation Poynting vector of scattered radiation Mean Poynting vector of scattered radiation Mass radiation stopping power Total mass stopping power Sievert (SI unit of equivalent dose) Incoherent scattering function Triton Time; thickness of absorber in mass scattering power Characteristic time in nuclear decay series or nuclear activation Half-life Temperature; linear scattering power; temporal function Mass scattering power Transverse electric mode Transverse magnetic mode Non-SI unit of pressure deﬁned as 1/760 of a standard atmosphere (1 torr = 1 mm Hg) Uniﬁed atomic mass constant ð931:5 MeV=c2 Þ Particle velocity after collision; EM ﬁeld density Uranium atom Applied potential Velocity Electron velocity Threshold velocity in Čerenkov effect Velocity of energy flow Group velocity Velocity of electron in nth allowed orbit Phase velocity Velocity of α-particle Volt (unit of potential difference); potential operator Volume; potential energy Nuclear potential Thomas–Fermi potential Potential energy for ﬁnite nuclear size Yukawa potential Volume Variance Radiation weighting factor Relative weight of Compton effect Relative weight of photoelectric effect Relative weight of pair production Transmitted particle in weak interaction; tungsten atom l Wel Wif Wmag W x xf xi x0 x01 x ðxD Þmax x1=10 x1=2 A ZX X X0 PE ðjÞ X y Y yP ðyD Þmax YDÂ Ã Y ðEK Þ0 ; Z yP z zmax Z Zeff Zo Roman Letter Symbols Electric energy stored per unit length Transition (reaction) rate Magnetic energy stored per unit length Watt (unit of power) Momentum transfer variable ðx ¼ sinðµ=2Þ=‚Þ; normalized time x ¼ t=t1=2 ; horizontal axis in 2D and 3D Cartesian coordinate system; coordinate in Cartesian coordinate system; abscissa axis Particle ﬁnal position Particle initial position Target thickness First zero of the zeroth order Bessel function ðx01 ¼ 2:405Þ Mean free path; mean value of variable x Maximum normalized characteristic time of the daughter Tenth-value layer Half-value layer Nucleus with symbol X, atomic mass number A and atomic number Z Exposure Target thickness; radiation length Mean fluorescence emission energy Vertical axis in 2D Cartesian coordinate system; coordinate in Cartesian coordinate system; ordinate axis Radiation yield; activation yield Normalized activity Maximum normalized daughter activity Radioactivation yield of the daughter Radiation yield Normalized parent activity Atomic number of the projectile; depth in phantom; coordinate in Cartesian coordinate system; applicate axis Depth of dose maximum Atomic number Effective atomic number Transmitted particle in weak interaction Greek Letter Symbols ﬁ ﬁIC ﬂ ﬂþ ﬂÀ ° – ¢ ε εÃ ε0 µ µ2 µcer µmax µmin µR Θ Θ2 · Fine structure constant (1/137); ratio¾P =¾D ; nucleus of helium atom (alpha particle) Internal conversion factor Normalized particle velocityðÀ=cÞ Beta plus particle (positron) Beta minus particle (electron) Photon originating in a nuclear transition; ratio of total to rest energy of a particle; ratio of total to rest mass of a particle Polarization (density effect) correction for stopping power; delta particle (electron); duty cycle for linear accelerators Energy threshold for restricted stopping power Eccentricity of hyperbola; normalized photon energy: ε ¼ h”=ðme c2 Þ; Planck energy Ratio ‚ÃD =‚D in nuclear activation Electric constant (electric permittivity of vacuum): 8:85Â10À12 AÁs/(VÁm) Scattering angle for a single scattering event; scattering angle of projectile in projectile/target collision; scattering angle of photon in Compton and Rayleigh scattering Mean square scattering angle for single scattering Čerenkov characteristic angle Characteristic angle in bremsstrahlung production; maximum scattering angle Minimum scattering angle Characteristic angle for Rayleigh scattering Scattering angle for multiple scattering Mean square scattering angle for multiple scattering Pair production parameter; maximum energy transfer fraction in nuclear collision; energy boundary between hard and soft collision; fluorescence efﬁciency li lii • a• •=‰ ‚ ‚C ð‚Þc ‚D ‚ÃD ‚min ‚P ⁄ „ „ab „eff „H „m „tr „=‰ „0 ð„ab =‰Þ ð„tr =‰Þ a„ e„ „m ” ” eq ”e ” orb ” trans ”„ » »j … …þ …À ‰ ‰ðEf Þ ¾ ¾rad ¾C Greek Letter Symbols Linear attenuation coefﬁcient for pair production Atomic attenuation coefﬁcient for pair production Mass attenuation coefﬁcient for pair production Wavelength; separation constant; decay constant; de Broglie wavelength of particle Compton wavelength Cutoff wavelength in uniform waveguide Decay constant of daughter Modiﬁed decay constant Duane–Hunt short wavelength cutoff Decay constant of parent Separation constant Linear attenuation coefﬁcient; reduced mass Linear energy absorption coefﬁcient Effective attenuation coefﬁcient Reduced mass of hydrogen atom Mass attenuation coefﬁcient Linear energy transfer coefﬁcient Mass attenuation coefﬁcient Magnetic constant (magnetic permeability of vacuum): 4…Â10À7 (VÁs)/(AÁm) Mass energy absorption coefﬁcient Mass energy transfer coefﬁcient Atomic attenuation coefﬁcient Electronic attenuation coefﬁcient Unit of length or distance (10À6 m) Frequency Photon frequency at which the atomic cross sections for Rayleigh scattering and Compton scattering are equal Electronic neutrino Orbital frequency Transition frequency Muonic neutrino Ratio between daughter and parent activities at time t; Thomas–Fermi atomic radius constant; absorption edge parameter in photoelectric effect Absorption edge parameter for subshell j Pi meson (pion) Positive pi meson (pion) Negative pi meson (pion) Density; energy density Density of ﬁnal states Cross section; linear attenuation coefﬁcient; standard deviation Cross section for emission of bremsstrahlung Compton cross section (attenuation coefﬁcient) Greek Letter Symbols ¾KN C a ¾C a ¾R a ¾Th e ¾C ¾D ¾R ¾Ruth ¾Th a¾ e¾ ½¾ðzÞ2 ¿ a¿ ¿=‰ ` ϕ ϕ_ ´ ˆ Ψ ω ωc ωcyc ωK Ω liii Klein–Nishina cross section for Compton effect Atomic attenuation coefﬁcient (cross section) for Compton effect Atomic attenuation coefﬁcient (cross section) for Rayleigh scattering Atomic attenuation coefﬁcient (cross section) for Thomson scattering Electronic attenuation coefﬁcient for Compton effect Daughter cross section in particle radioactivation Rayleigh cross section (linear attenuation coefﬁcient) Cross section for Rutherford scattering Thomson cross section (linear attenuation coefﬁcient) Atomic cross section (in cm2 /atom) Electronic cross section (in cm2 /electron) Spatial spread of electron pencil beam Linear attenuation coefﬁcient for photoelectric effect; normalized electron kinetic energy; mean (average) life Atomic attenuation coefﬁcient for photoelectric effect Mass attenuation coefﬁcient for photoelectric effect Angle between radius vector and axis of symmetry on a hyperbola; recoil angle of the target in projectile/target collision; neutron recoil angle in elastic scattering on nucleus; recoil angle of the electron in Compton scattering Particle fluence Particle fluence rate Homogeneity factor Wavefunction (eigenfunction) depending on spatial coordinates; energy fluence Wavefunction depending on spatial and temporal coordinates Fluorescence yield; angular frequency Cutoff angular frequency in acceleration waveguide Cyclotron frequency fluorescence yield for K-shell transition Fluorescence yield for K-shell transition Solid angle Acronyms AAPM ACR AFOMP ALFIM ART BNCT BNL CAMPEP CCD CCPM CODATA CPA CPE CSDA CT CVD CNT DT EC EFOMP EM EGS EE FAMPO FDG FE FNS FWHM HDR HPA American Association of Physicists in Medicine American College of Radiology Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics Associaçåo Latino-americana de Fisica Medica Adaptive radiotherapy Boron neutron capture therapy Brookhaven National Laboratory Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs Charge-coupled device Canadian College of Physicists in Medicine Committee on Data for Science and Technology Charged particle activation Charged particle equilibrium Continuous slowing down approximation Computerized tomography Chemical vapor deposition Carbon nanotube Deuterium-tritium Electron capture European Federation of Organisations of Medical Physics Electromagnetic Electron-gamma shower Exoelectron emission Federation of African Medical Physics Organizations Fluoro-deoxy-glucose Field emission Finite nuclear size Full width at half maximum High dose rate Hospital Physicists’ Association lv lvi HVL IAEA IC ICRP ICRU IE IGRT IMPCB IMRT IOMP IP IUPAC KN LDR LET LIC LINAC MC MEFOMP MFP MLC MOC MRI MV NA NDS NE NIST NNDC NPP NRC NTCP OER OSL PE PET PMT PP PPM PPS RBE RF RT SAD SF Acronyms Half-value layer International Atomic Energy Agency Internal conversion, Ionization chamber International Commission on Radiation Protection International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Ionization energy Image-guided radiotherapy International Medical Physics Certiﬁcation Board Intensity modulated radiotherapy International Organization for Medical Physics Ionization potential International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Klein–Nishina Low dose rate Linear energy transfer Liquid ionization chamber Linear accelerator Monte Carlo Middle East Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics Mean free path Multi-leaf collimator Maintenance of certiﬁcation Magnetic resonance imaging Megavoltage Nuclear activation Nuclear data section Neutron emission National Institute of Standards and Technology National Nuclear Data Center Nuclear Pair Production National Research Council Normal tissue complication probability Oxygen enhancement ratio Optically stimulated luminescence Photoelectric, Proton emission Positron emission tomography Photomultiplier tube Pair production Parts per million Pulses per second Relative biological effectiveness Radiofrequency Radiotherapy Source-axis distance Spontaneous ﬁssion Acronyms SI SEAFOMP SLAC SRA SSD STP TCP TL TVL TE TM TP UK US lvii Système International Southeast Asian Federation for Medical Physics Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Synchrotron radiation angioplasty Source-skin distance, source-surface distance Standard temperature and pressure Tumor control probability Thermoluminescence Tenth-value layer Transverse electric Transverse magnetic Triplet Production United Kingdom Ultrasound First Solvay Conference on Physics Photograph on next page shows many of the outstanding physicists that shaped modern physics during the ﬁrst decades of the 20th century.