By Marco Zaider, Harald H. Rossi
We have thought of it to be a not easy project to supply a whole exposition facing the character of radiation, its results, and defense opposed to it to staff in health-related actions. "Radiation" (and extra accurately "ionizing radiation") is emitted through X-ray machines, nuclear reactors, and nuclear guns, but in addition comes from usual assets to which we're all uncovered. it's going to were more straightforward to house this topic zone with the terminology and arithmetic hired by means of experts. even though, even supposing many of the capability readers most likely have received extra pertinent wisdom, we think not more than a highschool schooling in technological know-how and arithmetic and the problem was once to supply greatest details inside this constraint. This booklet includes 5 sections: (A) Radiation Physics, (B) Radiological Physics, (C) Radiation Biology, (D) Radiation results on Human Populations, and (E) Radiation security. each one part is preceded via a synopsis protecting its crucial positive aspects. It offers enough info to let readers to acquire a basic lower than status of the topic of the part and an sufficient heritage for comprehension of different sections. The extra exact presentation within the bulk of every part is via appendixes that typically comprise extra complicated themes. This scheme inevitably contains a few repetition yet allows a extra versatile technique for readers who're particularly drawn to the contents of specific sections.
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Additional info for Radiation Science for Physicians and Public Health Workers
A. a, either in free space or within irradiated matter. The symbol f.. denotes the fact that the area must be sufficiently small in the general case where the fluence changes with location. a is the cross section of a sphere rather than an area perpendicular to a beam because, in general, the radiation is not unidirectional (Figure 13). , per square meter); the smaller unit cm-2 (which is 104 or 10,000 times smaller) is often employed. Radiation can also be considered to be a flow of energy. 6a Figure 13.
626 x 10-34 ]s (physicists refer to the product energy x time as "action"). The quantum of light was named photon; because it moves with the velocity of light the photon must have zero mass when at rest. 21 The electric charge of the photon is zero. A summary of these quantities is given in Table 7. For his discovery Planck was awarded the Nobel prize in 1918. In 1905 Einstein applied Planck's concept of the quantum to explain the fact that in the photoelectric effect (atoms placed in a radiation field emit electrons 22) the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is independent of the radiation intensity and depends instead only on its frequency.
Concerning reactor safety, the main source of concern is the possibility of releasing large amounts of radioactive material in the atmosphere follOWing an accident that blows up the containment shell. This has not happened yet (at Chernobyl there was no containment shell; and at the Three Mile Island accident practically all the radioactivity emitted remained inside the reactor vessel). In terms of people harmed by radiation emitted in accidents, the safety record of the nuclear power industry remains outstanding.