Sam N. Hassani M.D. (auth.)'s Ultrasound in gynecology and obstetrics PDF

By Sam N. Hassani M.D. (auth.)

by Dr. Donald L. King The earlier decade has noticeable the ascent of ultrasonography to a preeminent place as a diagnostic imaging modality for obstetrics and gynecology. it may be acknowledged with out qualification that glossy obstetrics and gynecology can't be practiced with no using diagnostic ultrasound, and specifically, using ultrasonogra­ phy. Ultrasonography speedy and accurately presents distinctive, excessive­ answer photographs of the pelvic organs and gravid uterus. the standard and volume of diagnostic details bought by way of extremely­ sonography a ways exceeds something formerly on hand and has had a progressive impression at the administration of sufferers. excessive­ solution static photographs allow the intrauterine prognosis of fetal progress retardation and fetal abnormalities. as well as tradi­ tional pictures, more recent dynamic imaging recommendations permit observa­ tion of fetal movement, cardiac pulsation, and breathing efforts. using ultrasonography for assistance has tremendously augmented the protection and application of amniocentesis. one of many nice virtues of diagnostic ultrasound has been its obvious safeguard. at the present power degrees, diagnostic ultrasound seems to be with none injurious influence. even though all of the availa­ ble facts means that it's a very secure modality and that the ease to hazard ratio is particularly excessive, the particular defense margin for its use Vll as but continues to be unknown. therefore, practitioners are steered to restrict its use merely to these occasions within which real scientific indica­ tions exist and actual gain to the sufferer is probably going to result.

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Example text

The position of the umbilicus varies in many pathologic conditions and even among normal young and old individuals. Indeed, it may be surgically absent. Since it is not a fixed reference point, the exact echogram cannot be reproduced on repeat examination in many pathologic conditions (eg, ascites, abdominal mass) after a lapse of time. 2. Absence of use of prone, decubitus, angled, and oblique scanning planes. REFERENCE POINTS Experience has shown that many obstacles present in previous studies would be avoided if a fixed structure in the body was used as a reference point (38).

However, we are still following our data. cm2 intensity. At present we conclude, on the basis of all existing evidence, that there are most likely no significant somatic changes produced by the energy level of the diagnostic range of ultrasound. The possibility of delayed genetic effects remains questionable. GENETIC EFFECTS OF ULTRASOUND The increased use of ultrasound in fetal and maternal disorders and its recent application to the male testis requires investigation into the potential genetic hazards of clinical ultrasonography.

However, certain low-level echoes are required for optimal information. The sonographer should adjust the rejection level, as needed, for proper ultrasonic examination. MAIN SYSTEM CONTROL POWER SWITCH An on-off switch is connected to a standard 110volt outlet. The line is grounded to prevent an electric hazard. REJECT The reject control varies the amplitude threshold required to record an echo. It discriminates against low-level echoes and is used to remove "grass"-like interference at higher gain settings.

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