By Timothy C. McCarthy
Written through major specialists in veterinary endoscopy, this informative, sensible advisor to endoscopic imaging includes the most recent info on symptoms, instrumentation, sufferer guidance and strategies. It deals important info on endoscopic gear, anesthesia concerns, and instructions for either starting and complex concepts. insurance specializes in very important parts reminiscent of rhinoscopy, bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, cystoscopy, decrease GI, higher GI, and extra.
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Extra info for Veterinary Endoscopy for the Small Animal Practitioner
Roush JK and others: Effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate on esophageal, gastric, and tracheal pH in anesthetized dogs, Vet Surg 19:88-92, 1990. 11. Brock-Utne JF and others: The effect of glycopyrrolate (Robinul) on the lower oesophageal sphincter, Can Anaesth Soc J 25:144, 1978. 12. Strombeck DR, Harrold D: Effects of atropine, acepromazine, meperidine, and xylazine on gastroesophageal sphincter pressure in the dog, Am J Vet Res 46:963-965, 1985. 13. Hall AW and others: The effects of premedication drugs on the lower oesophageal high pressure zone and reflux status of Rhesus monkeys and man, Gut 16:347, 1975.
Fluid aspiration is most useful when evaluating gastric or duodenal samples for the presence of organisms such as Helicobacter, Giardia, and Ollulanus tricuspis, or when submitting samples for bacterial culture to identify bacterial overgrowth disorders of the small intestine. Brush cytologic preparations appear to be promising for identification of various inflammatory and neoplastic conditions of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tract. Impression smears of biopsy samples may be rewarding in some cases, but even with the gentlest of techniques, this procedure risks inducing artifacts in the sample that make histopathologic evaluation after formalin fixation even more difficult than usual.
Do not hesitate to ask for second opinions. Simply looking at the slide again the next morning can be an eye-opening experience, and I often marvel at the apparent ability of fixed and processed tissue sections to “alter themselves” overnight (Box 3-1). A study by Willard and colleagues1 found a disturbingly high degree of interobserver variation when different pathologists viewed the same intestinal biopsy slides. BIOPSY HANDLING Endoscopic biopsies include mucosal, solid organ, mass lesion, and intraarticular samples.